Reorganize the following food chain. Describe the ecosystem to which it belongs.
Grasshopper – Snake – Paddy field – Eagle – Frog.
- Correct food chain: Paddy field → Grasshopper → Frog → Snake → Eagle.
- Such food chain is seen in the terrestrial ecosystem. There are many biotic factors in the terrestrial ecosystem, such as insects, birds, mammals etc.
- The above example mentions about paddy field, so it must be in vicinity of coastal lands. There is water logging in the paddy fields. Therefore, it offers a habitat to the frogs.
- In the above example, paddy fields are producers in the ecosystem. The primary consumer is grasshopper. Secondary consumer is frog, tertiary consumer is snake and the apex consumer is eagle. On every trophic level the bacteria, fungi and some scavenging worms can act as the decomposers.
- In this ecosystem. the solar energy is transferred from the paddy crops to eagle in a step wise food
Explain the statement – ‘We have got this Earth planet on lease from our future generations and not as an ancestral property from our ancestors.’
- The earth was inhabited by older generations before us. We have replaced them.
- But during their life time, they have created hazardous impact on the earth. The industrialization, the quest for more and more natural resources, wars fought, the construction activities such as dams, roads and bridges, extensive deforestation, etc. were their thoughtless activities.
- All these activities were for development of mankind. But most of them have destroyed the delicate balance between the producers and different levels of consumers.
- Due to ever increasing population of human beings there is shortage of food, clothing and shelter. To procure these basic needs, we have exploited many natural resources causing destruction of the earth’s natural ecosystem.
- Now it is our turn to protect the earth as on the same planet the next generations have to survive. We have to hand over the ecosystems of the earth which are in perfect balance to the new generations.
- The future generations need a good quality of air, water and land along with all other living organisms.
- Due to problems like climate change, global warming, pollution, droughts, etc. the environment is impacted, thus in order to keep sustainability of earth, we have to remember that the earth has not been obtained only as ancestral property but we have to save it for future generations.
Write short notes.
a. Environmental conservation.
Due to natural and man-made causes, there are many environmental problems on the earth. These problems affect the existence of various living organisms. In order to save these organisms and maintain the environmental balance, there is need for environmental conservation. If this is not done then there will not be any quality of life for the resident humans. For environmental conservation, the Government has formulated acts and rules. UN has established UNEP for the conservation programs.
The people’s participation in the conservation movement is essential. From school age, the environmental values are inculcated in the young minds. Conservation of environment is the social responsibility of everyone. Judicial use of natural resources conservation also way of environmental conservation.
b. Chipko Movement of Bishnoi.
Chipko Movement of Bishnoi or Bishnoi Andolan:
Khejarli or Khejadli is a village in Rajasthan, where Bishnoi community is located. The name of the town is derived from Khejri trees.
The first event of Chipko Movement took place in Khejadli village in 1730 AD. In this village 363 Bishnois, led by Amrita Devi sacrificed their lives for protecting the trees of Khejri trees, which trees are considered as sacred by Bishnoi.
Amrita Devi said, “if a tree is saved even at the cost of one’s head, it’s worth it”. She was killed with the axes that were brought to chop off the trees. The three young daughters Asu, Ratna and Bhagubai also sacrificed their lives for trees.
83 Bishnoi villages came together and villagers sacrificed their lives after hearing about Amrita Devi’s sacrifice. Three hundred and sixty-three Bishnois were killed as they opposed the king. After realizing the mistake, the king ordered stoppage of the felling of trees. Honouring the courage of the Bishnoi community, the ruler of Jodhpur, Maharaja Abhay Singh, apologized. He issued a royal decree to protect trees and wild life.
Chipko movement of 20th century in Uttar Pradesh also followed the same pattern of embracing the trees and saving them from cutting.
Biodiversity means the diverse life forms that inhabit any area. Biodiversity is seen due to variety of life forms and different ecosystems that lodge these organisms. In nature there is biodiversity on the three different levels, viz. genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. This means that there is diversity in the individuals belonging to the same species due to genetic reasons, there is diversity among the different species of organisms and there is also a diversity in the ecosystems that are present in any region.
Due to development of mankind, the biodiversity is threatened. There are special efforts taken to restore the lost and threatened biodiversity. Some of these are establishing sanctuaries, National Parks, biodiversity hotspots and reserves etc. Certain endangered species are protected by carrying out conservation projects.
d. Sacred Groves.
Sacred grove is the green patch of the forest which is conserved by local people in the name of God. It does not belong to forest department. It is like a sanctuary that is conserved by the common people and tribals in the area. It is rich in the biodiversity.It is conserved as there is a faith that God or deity reside in the sacred grove. Hence in local language, they are known as Deorai. Due to this reason, people do not fell the trees. Also hunting of any wild life is not done here. More than 13000 sacred groves have been reported in India. Most of these are in Western Ghats in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. Also, in remaining parts of India sacred groves are reported. Role of sacred grove is tremendous in conserving the biodiversity.
e. Disaster and its management.
- To save human life from disasters. To help them for moving away from the place of disasters by rapid action.
- To supply essential commodities to the affected people. This helps to reduce the gravity of disaster. People are given grains, water and clothes and other basic necessities under this objective.
- To bring back the conditions of affected people to normalcy.
- To rehabilitate the affected and displaced victims.
- To think and execute the protective measures in order to develop capability to face the disasters in
How will you justify that overcoming the pollution is a powerful way of environmental management?
“Solving the problem of pollution is an effective way of environmental management.” Justify the statement.
1. Pollution is created only due to human activities. Air, water, soil, noise, radiation, thermal, light, plastic are different types of pollution.
2. All types of pollution affect environment and particularly threatening the survival of living organisms.
3. Pollution must be controlled in order to have good quality of the environment. E.g. When plastic is thrown anywhere, it causes pollution of the land, it clogs the rain water drains, it affects feeding of the animals. Plastic pollution can be completely stopped by us through proper management of plastic waste. By recycling or reusing, we can overcome the plastic pollution. This would be a powerful way of environmental management.
4. Similarly, when we reduce pollution of different types, we automatically help to regain the environmental health.
Which projects will you run in relation to environmental conservation? How?
Write six strategies implemented by you for conservation of the environment.
Initially, assessment of the environmental problems will be done. The nature and severity of these problems will be understood by detailed study of the same. Then the projects can be undertaken to combat these problems.
1. Tree plantation is one such easier project that can be undertaken to conserve environment. The further nurturing of the tree will also be our responsibility. While selecting the tree, the local and sturdy varieties will be selected. Such trees can survive in polluted environment too and even under the pressure of urbanization.
2. Solid waste management is another very important project that should be undertaken by every society, colony or school. Segregation of waste into dry and wet types and then its proper disposal will be taught to all the people in the neighbouring area.
3. To ban the plastic and make people aware about harmful effects of plastic is another very significant project.
4. Fossil fuels are non-renewable and polluting. Therefore, their use should be reduced as far as possible. Therefore, using bicycle, or walking down for shorter distances or using public transport systems are the better alternatives. The awareness drive about these facts will be taken up as a project.
5. To take care of stray animals, provide shelter, feeding endangered birds like sparrows and allowing them to survive with our support is also one of the essential act to conserve other species.
6. Attempts will be made for bringing awareness among minds of everyone. Such small acts can bring about major shift in the attitude of the people. This will certainly help in the environmental conservation.
Answer the following:
a. Write the factors affecting environment.
- The biotic and abiotic- factors affect the environment. Among abiotic factors, the physical and chemical factors can alter the conditions of the environment.
- Abiotic factors are either natural or man-made.
- The various interrelationships between different living organisms can also affect environment.
- The natural disasters such as earthquake, forest fires, cyclones, cloud bursting, drought, etc. change the environment.
- The human activities such as deforestation, urbanisation, constructions etc. cause permanent damage to the ecosystems. Due to man-made impact, there can be large scale changes in the environment.
b. Human beings have important place in environment.
- Man came last on the earth during evolution of animals. But due to his intelligence, imagination, critical thinking and memory, he made progress in all fields.
- By virtue of these qualities he became the supreme.
- All the natural resources on the earth were very rapidly exploited by man.
- Under the pretext of technology and. development he made degradation of almost all¬natural ecosystems.
- He never obeys the rules of nature.
- Phenomena like pollution, urbanization, industrialization and deforestation are exclusively his creations.
- Hunting and poaching other animals were his contribution to the extinction of many other animals.
- Except man no other organism on the earth can change the ecosystems in such a drastic way. Therefore, it is rightly said that human beings have important place in environment.
c. Write the types and examples of biodiversity.
Biodiversity is documented on the following three levels, viz. genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
1. Genetic Diversity: Diversity seen among the organisms of same species due to genetic differences is called genetic diversity. E.g. The individual human beings are different from each other. No two animals or plants are exactly alike.
2. Species Diversity: The difference between the different species is the species diversity, e.g. All the species of plants, animals and microbes which are seen in any natural environment.
3. Ecosystem Diversity: In one region there may be different ecosystems, such diversity in the ecosystems is called ecosystem diversity. Ecosystems are natural or artificial. Every region shows different types of ecosystems such as aquatic, terrestrial, desert or forest ecosystems. Each ecosystem has its own habitats with resident flora and fauna.
d. How the biodiversity can be conserved?
Biodiversity can be conserved by the following ways:
- Protection of the rare species of plants and animals.
- Creating habitats for the animals and plants by establishing National Parkland Sanctuaries.
- Declaration of bioreserves, the areas which are protected through conservation.
- Conservation projects for protecting special species.
- Conservation of all flora and fauna.
- Strict observance of the acts and rules.
- Use of traditional knowledge and maintaining record of traditional knowledge.
e. What do we learn from the story of Jadav Molai Peyang? (Board’s Model Activity Sheet)
Jadav Molai Peyang is a common man who was just a simple forest worker. But he has conscience about plants and tree plantations. He single-handedly planted thousands of trees. He converted a barren patch of land into forest which is spread over 1360 acres. For these plantations he continuously worked.
He has shown that a single determined person, can establish a new forest! We understand the values of
hard work, sincerity and devotion to the nature through the story of Jadav Molai Peyang. Even a common man can contribute a lot for the conservation and protection of the environment by learning the story of Peyang.
f. Write the names of biodiversity hot spots.
- In entire world, 34 highly sensitive biodiversity spots are reported.
- These hotspots occupied 15.7% area of the Earth.
- However, currently about 86% of the sensitive areas are already destroyed.
- Now about 2.3% area of the Earth still has such sensitive biodiversity spots.
- There are 1,50,000 plant species which are about 50% of the species in the world.
- In India, out of 135 species of animals, 85 species are found in the jungles of eastern region.
- There are about 1,500 endemic plant species in Western Ghats.
- About 50,000 plants species out of the total plants in the world are said to be endemic.
4.environmental management exercise
g. Which are the reasons for endangering the many species of plants and animals? How can we save those diversity?
- The animals and plants species are endangered majorly due to man-made causes.
- Some natural disasters like earthquakes, climate change, forest fires, drought and cyclones also affect the living organisms due to lack of food and water.
- In man-made causes, hunting and poaching are the main reasons.
- Also animal-human conflicts occur due to invasion of human settlements into the habitats of wild animals.
- Construction of dams, roads, and colonies destroy the habitats of wild life.
- Industrialization, urbanization and population explosion of humans are putting severe pressure on all the existing biodiversity.
- In order to save and protect the biodiversity, many scientists and naturalists come together. A stretch of land is protected by declaring it as the sanctuary or a national park by the Government. Even the locals can protect it as a sacred grove.
- Various acts and rules have been formulated to protect the organisms. The violators of such rules are punished accordingly.
What are the meanings of the following symbols? Write your role accordingly. (July ’19; Board’s Model Activity Sheet)
What do these symbols indicate? Explain your opinion about those symbols.
1. The first symbol is for giving the message, “Reduce, reuse and recycle”. This is important mantra for the utilization of natural resources.
The second symbol gives the message about ‘Save water’.
The third symbol advocates the use of solar energy.
2. These symbols inculcate the importance of being eco-friendly. The first symbol is essential to maintain the natural resources by reusing and recycling them. As far as possible, one should reduce the excessive use of resources by preventing consumerism.
3. Water problems persist in many major cities and villages. In villages it results in drought like conditions. It also reflects into loss of agricultural produce. Therefore, the message about saving water or to make judicious use of water should be spread far and wide.
4. The solar energy is the renewable energy option which is very easily available in country like India. By using solar energy, we can replace the polluting and exhaustible fuels. Thereby, pollution will also be reduced.
Due to such symbols, important messages about environment conservation reach, us and we can change ourselves into more ecofriendly persons.